Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus is a condition associated with total lack of insulin in the body. If not treated properly, it can lead to Diabetic Keto Acidosis (DKA), which can even be fatal.
It is usually due to an autoimmune process, in which body's own immunity turns against the organs of the body, in this case, the pancreatic beta cells, that secrete the glucose regulating hormone insulin.
These patients require life-long insulin treatment, either in the form of insulin injections or insulin pumps, in order to survive.
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is characterized by insulin resistance (i.e. insulin is not able to act properly). It can be managed with oral tablets initially. However, in the long-run, patients with Type 2 Diabetes may also need insulin injections.
If not adequately controlled, it can affect different organs of the body. The major organs affected include the eyes, kidneys, heart, liver and feet. Once these organs are affected, even a proper control of blood sugar then, may not halt the progression of these complications.
So, it is important to treat it adequately from the time of onset, so as to delay the onset of complications.
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) refers to high blood glucose levels during pregnancy. High blood sugar levels in pregnancy can have adverse effectaffect the baby adversely. However, GDM can be adequately managed with lifestyle changes and insulin treatment.
Diabetes Mellitus can result from diseases or surgical removal of pancreas, which is the main site of synthesis of insulin. Patients with pancreatic diabetes mellitus, need special care to prevent both high and low blood sugar levels in blood.