Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus is a condition associated with total lack of insulin in the body. If not treated properly, it can lead to Diabetic Keto Acidosis (DKA), which can even be fatal.
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is characterized by insulin resistance (i.e. insulin is not able to act properly). It can be managed with oral tablets initially. If not adequately controlled, high blood sugar levels on a long-term basis, can damage the eyes, kidneys, heart, liver and feet.
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) occurs during pregnancy. High blood sugar levels in pregnancy can affect the baby adversely. However, GDM can be adequately managed with lifestyle changes and insulin treatment.
Diabetes Mellitus can result from diseases or surgical removal of pancreas, which is the main site of synthesis of insulin. Patients with pancreatic diabetes mellitus, need special care to prevent both high and low blood sugar levels in blood.
High levels of cholesterol in the blood can lead to blockage of arteries of heart, brain, feet etc. leading to consequences like heart attack, stroke, gangrene, foot ulcer etc. They can be easily treated with medications and these consequences can be prevented.
Hypothyroidism refers to low thyroid hormone levels in the blood. It can lead to various symptoms like generalized weakness, fatigue, increased sleepiness, constipation, swelling of face and feet etc. It is an easily treatable disease, with the help of thyroxine supplementation.
Polycystic Ovaries (PCOD)
PCOD/PCOS is a very common problem affecting young girls leading to disturbances in menstruation, increased hair growth over the body and face, acne and infertility. PCOD can also be associated with obesity, diabetes, high cholesterol, etc. PCOD can be easily treated with medications and other treatments.
Hyperthyroidism refers to increased levels of thyroid hormones in the body. It can lead to weight loss, palpitations, trembling of hands, increased sweating, etc. Proper evaluation of hyperthyroidism is a must to know the exact cause of hyperthyroidism and formulate treatment plan.
Hirsutism is the name given to increased facial and body hair in women. It denotes a state of high male hormones in the body of a female. Sometimes, it is due to increased sensitivity of hair follicles to normal levels of male hormones in the body. It is very important that all patients with hirsutism undergo an endocrine evaluation before going for any physical removal methods.
Galactorrhea refers to inappropriate milk discharge from breasts of women who have not had a baby recently. Most commonly, it is due to increased levels of prolactin hormone in the blood. There can be multiple reasons for raised prolactin levels in the blood. One of them is the presence of a tumor in the pituitary gland. Isolated high prolactin levels can be easily treated with medications prescribed by an Endocrinologist.
Erectile Dysfunction (Sexual Dysfunction) is a very common problem in males. It can be a result of endocrine problem or any chronic illness or it may be simply be due to stress (psychogenic ED). Patients with ED need thorough evaluation by an Endocrinologist to rule out hypogonadism and other Endocrine causes of ED.
Obesity and overweight are becoming increasingly common each year. On long term basis, obesity and overweight can lead to serious consequences like diabetes, hypertension,high cholesterol, osteoarthritis, etc. Over the counter products available for treatment of obesity can contain harmful substances that can harm the body in the long run. So make sure to be treated by the experts, only with the recommended drugs.
Child Growth Problems
Inadequate growth in children can be a result of multiple diseases. One of them is Growth Hormone Deficiency. A child who is not growing properly needs to be evaluated and investigated thoroughly to make a diagnosis of the disease and formulate a treatment plan.
Gynaecomastia refers to enlargement of breast tissue in males. It is different from lipomastia, which is accumulation of fat in the breasts. Gynaecomastia is an important observation, for which proper endocrine evaluation is warranted. If treated early, gynaecomastia can be reversed.
Hypogonadism refers to inadequate levels of sex hormones in the body. It can be due to a defect at the pituitary gland level in the brain, which stimulates testes and ovaries in males and females respectively to secrete sex hormones. Or it can be due to a defect at the testes or ovaries level. All patients with hypogonadism need a complete evaluation by an Endocrinologist for proper diagnosis and treatment.
Vitamin D Deficiency
Vitamin D Deficiency is a very common problem now-a-days due to lack of sunlight exposure. Vitamin D deficiency can cause bony pains and increase the risk of fractures. Vitamin D supplementation can easily correct Vitamin D deficiency and prevent the adverse consequences.
Osteoporosis refers to decrease strength of the bones due to loss of minerals from bone or decrease in quality of bone. It is especially important to recognize in post-menopausal women, who are at increased risk of fracture. It is important to understand that these fractures can be easily prevented if right medications are started under the guidance of an expert Endocrinologist.
Precocious puberty refers to development of sexual features before the age of 7 years in a girl and 8 years in a boy. There can be many reasons for early development of sexual features, ranging from exposure to sex steroids to tumor or genetic mutations. Such children need proper evaluation by an Endocrinologist to prevent them from psychosocial adverse effects of early puberty.
Delayed puberty refers to non-appearance of sexual features in a girl after 13 years of age and in a boy after 14 years of age. A delay in puberty can be a normal variant of growth pattern also, but there are important reasons that should be ruled out if sexual features fail to appear at appropriate age. Such children need a proper assessment by an Endocrinologist and timely treatment can prevent adverse consequences of delayed puberty.
Cushing's Syndrome refers to manifestations of increased levels of glucocorticoids (type of steroid hormones) in the body. The most common cause of Cushing's Syndrome is iatrogenic (due to increased intake of steroid hormone pills or injections). Other common causes include tumors in pituitary or adrenal glands. A proper evaluation by Endocrinologist is needed to reach to a particular cause and then treat it.
Pituitary Gland Problems
Pituitary Gland is situated near the base of the brain and is responsible for secretion of many hormones in the body, which further regulated other endocrine organs. Thus, it is responsible for many endocrine functions of the body. Pituitary Gland can be affected by tumors, infection, stroke, medications, radiation, prior surgery etc. If there is any indication of affection of Pituitary gland, its function should be thoroughly assessed and then a treatment plan formulated accordingly.
Parathyroid Glands are two pairs of glands located on the back of thyroid gland in the neck. The major function of parathyroid gland is to maintain the levels of calcium in the body. Hypofunction or Hyperfunction of parathyroid glands can lead to hypocalcemia (low levels of calcium in the blood) and hypercalcemia (high levels of calcium in the blood), respectively. Parathyroid gland disorders need proper evaluation and treatment by an Endocrinologist.
Adrenal Gland Problems
Adrenal Gland is a very important endocrine gland located in the abdomen. It has two major components, a cortex and a medulla, which secrete different hormones with different functions. Adrenal Gland disorders can range from hypofunction to hyperfunction or tumors or infections or genetic mutations. Adrenal Gland disorders need proper evaluation by Endocrinologist and can be treated easily once the underlying cause is detected.